National Endowment for the Humanities
National Historical Publications and Records Commission
The Spencer Foundation
The Florida State University
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
Exxon Education Foundation
Employers Mutual of Wausau
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse Foundation
The preparation of this microfilm project
was made possible (in part) by grants from The Research Materials Program of the
National Endowment for the Humanities, an independent federal agency.
The list of individuals and institutions that contributed to the microfilm edition of the Black Abolitionist Papers is far too long for individual acknowledgments. The archives, repositories, publishers, authors, libraries, and collectors who have allowed the photocopying of documents are in each case indicated on the document. To all of them we extend our thanks. Our thanks also to the literally hundreds of librarians, manuscript custodians, officers of historical societies, and collectors who responded to our appeal for black abolitionist documents.
There are a few individuals whose contributions should be singled out. At the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse, Kenneth Lindner, former chancellor, and Vice Chancellor Carl Wimberly supported the project through the four years of assembling the microfilm edition. At The Florida State University, Robert O. Lawton, the late vice president for academic affairs, and William R. Jones, director of the Black Studies Program, supported the project generously. Funding came from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission; and we eagerly acknowledge the cooperative spirit and the editorial assistance of the staff: Executive Director Frank Burke, George Vogt, Roger Bruns, Richard Sheldon, and Sara Jackson. The National Endowment for the Humanities was a major contributor to the project. We would like to thank the Endowment, and in particular, Chairman Joseph Duffey and staff members George Farr, Kathy Fuller, and Maben Herring of the Research Division. Among the project's private benefactors, H. Thomas James, president. The Spencer Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, merits special acknowledgment. All of these persons have been more than generous with their time and experience as well as their resources.
The editors gratefully acknowledge a professional staff of assistant editors, office managers, research assistants, and field representatives. Michael Stanke, Philip Henry, Thomas Telzrow, Michael Christianson, Fiona Spiers, and Jeffery Rossbach served as assistant editors. Mike Christianson worked with microfilmed newspapers and insisted that a clear, readable copy could be had from the most difficult original--he was correct more often than not. Jeffery Rossbach worked with the microfilm edition during its final phases, and it is improved for his efforts. Fiona Spiers served the project in the British Isles and searched for documents there. Monte Finkelstein hunted down elusive newspapers, read microfilm, and tended to a wide variety of project chores. Delores B. Carroll, Carol J. Miller, and Mary P. Martin kept things running smoothly at the offices at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse and at The Florida State University, while nearly forty students, field representatives, research associates, research assistants, and assistant editors read microfilm, searched manuscript collections, and indulged the editors' whims and looked for documents in unlikely places without complaint. Debra Susie operated the word processor and brought order and logic to the index of this microfilm edition.
The editors want to mention the following major repositories because of the scope of their contributions. The Amistad Research Center and its Director, Clifton H. Johnson, at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University, Thomas C. Battle and Esme E. Bhan were helpful. The Boston Public Library Curator of Manuscripts James Lawton, and Karl Kabelac, manuscripts librarian, the University of Rochester Library, assisted at those institutions. At the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Susan E. Davis and Otillia Pearson were extremely cooperative, as was Roy Van Note at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse Library.
We are, as always, in the debt of our Board of Editorial Advisors.
|Dorothy B. Porter
|John W. Blassingame
Morgan State University
|E. David Cronon
University of Wisconsin-Madison
|Joe M. Richardson
The Florida State University
|Helen G. Edmonds
North Carolina Central University
University of Edinburgh
|John Hope Franklin (ex-officio)
University of Chicago
|James Morton Smith
|William R. Jones
The Florida State University
University of East Anglia
|Leon F. Litwack
University of California-Berkeley
|Earl E. Thorpe
North Carolina Central University
North Carolina Central University
|William H. Pease
University of Maine-Orono
Editor, Journal of American History
University of London
The mission of the Black Abolitionist Papers Project was to collect and make available to the public the writings of black Americans involved in the movement to end slavery in the United States between 1830 and 1865. The four year search for letters, speeches, editorials, articles, sermons, and essays took the project staff to hundreds of antebellum newspapers and to thousands of manuscript collections in England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, and the United States. The search netted some 14,000 documents written by nearly 300 black men and women.
Users of the microfilm edition of the Black Abolitionist Papers Project should be familiar with the procedures which guided the project in its search for documents. That familiarity will suggest the strengths and the limitations of the collection.
A name list of black abolitionists was the basis of the search for documents. Determining who qualified as a black abolitionist was an initial step in the collection phase; compiling the name list was a continuing process throughout the collection phase.
Major figures were not troublesome. The historical legacy of individuals such as William Wells Brown, Henry Highland Garnet, Samuel R. Ward, J. W. C. Pennington, David Ruggles, Charles Lenox Remond, Mary Ann Shadd Cary, Henry Bibb, and Ellen and William Craft qualified them, as have the documents the project subsequently collected. These people fit comfortably into the category of black Americans active in the movement to abolish slavery. But less well-known (and in many cases less active) blacks involved in the movement posed problems. As the name list swelled to over 600 names during the initial search in newspapers and manuscript collections, the list became cumbersome and slowed research.
The following guidelines were adopted to keep the name list workable while at the same time keeping the search for documents as broad as possible. A name might be put on the list for any of a number of reasons: membership in an antislavery society, attending an antislavery meeting, activities as an antislavery lecturer or author, signing a petition--any indication that the person was black and active in the movement caused his or her name to be added to the list. From that point, researchers looked for documents by that person. For example, a regional, black, antislavery newspaper might yield as many as thirty names for the list. Some of those individuals turned out to be active abolitionists who wrote and lectured and left documents, and their names remained on the list throughout the collection phase. Other individuals who were less active and left no documents also found their way to the list because their names appeared in a newspaper or in a document; they were more difficult to treat as the name list grew.
The editors decided to prune the name list at regular intervals.A black abolitionist's ability to remain on the list depended upon his or her ability to generate documents. A person could come to the list simply by being identified as a black American who was involved in antislavery activities. But for the name to remain there, the project had to locate documents by that person--letters, speeches, essays, petitions, editorials. If after a period of time no primary documents were found, the individual was dropped from the list.
The editors found this to be a reasonable policy--reached through reluctant decision--for three larger reasons. First, the list would have grown easily to over 1,000 names, and that would have made the search for documents nearly impossible. Second, it became clear that when the project worked with regional sources (such as a local, black newspaper or a local antislavery society collection of papers), the name list was enlarged, for the most part, with the names of individuals who ultimately produced no documents. A person who came to our attention because he or she was mentioned in those local sources, but who had produced no documents by the time we were through those sources, would be dropped from the name list shortly thereafter. The assumption was that if a less active black abolitionist had no surviving documents in sources indigenous to the region where he or she lived and worked, then they were even less likely to produce documents outside their home area. And finally, a person could be put on the list as many times as he or she came to the project's attention. Someone who qualified for the list after being identified as a black abolitionist in one newspaper might be dropped from the list because no documents were found, only to appear at a later time in another source and to be put back on the list. Because of this, it is unlikely that significant figures (and their documents) were overlooked completely.
The researcher should be aware that some documents by some black abolitionists likely escaped the attention of the project if the documents exist in sources--newspapers or manuscript collections--that the project searched before the author was identified as a black abolitionist and put on the list. If, for example, a black abolitionist was identified in the third year of the collection phase, he or she may have documents in sources the project searched prior to then, if that is the case, those documents would have escaped our search and will not appear in the microfilm edition.
The final name list numbers nearly 300. The individuals on the list have demonstrated by their own surviving written record that they were indeed black abolitionists. The documents which categorized these individuals as black abolitionists are antislavery documents. The microfilm edition does not include documents by individuals who were active in the antislavery movement but left only documents treating other subjects. The editors have, however, included documents by major contributors that are not strictly antislavery documents if those documents have significant historical value. The researcher should be aware that the inclusion of these materials does not imply that a systematic search was made for such materials. They are included because they came to the project's attention; and the editors felt that although they are outside of the scope of the project, they should be included as a courtesy to the scholarly community. For the same reasons, the editors also included for filming certain pre-1830 documents which appear at the end of the microfilm edition.
Documents in the microfilm edition of the Black Abolitionist Papers Project were prepared according to guidelines which provide the user with essential information about the documents. The user will find at the bottom of each document the source from which the project obtained a copy of the document. If the document is from a newspaper, the name of the newspaper and the date of the issue which contains the document are indicated. If the original is a manuscript document, the user will find the name of the manuscript collection and the repository which houses the collection at the bottom of the microfilmed document.
At the top left of the first page of each document the user will find--when appropriate for the document--the name of the black abolitionist responsible for the document, the date of the document, the place of origin of the document, and, in the case of letters, the recipient. In some instances, such as legal documents, the type or title of the document is also provided, (i.e., land deed.) Exceptions and amplifications to these general guidelines appear in subsequent sections of this guide.
Brackets enclose information that was added by the project staff. Often manuscript documents came to the project from repositories with bracketed information and a question mark; in such cases, the brackets and the question mark were retained.
Many documents were found in more than one source. A speech given by a black abolitionist originally carried in the Weekly Anglo-African might be reprinted in the Liberator, Douglass Monthly, and the New York Tribune, either in edited or complete form. To accommodate duplicate or variant copies of documents, the editors prepared a separate sheet which appears after the last frame of the document in the microfilm edition. The sheet carries the accession number of the document and lists the other sources where the document is available.
A number of criteria were used for selecting which document would be microfilmed and which would be listed as a duplicate or variant copy. The project sought to present the superior version of a document in the microfilm edition.
A superior manuscript document is original and unpublished.
A superior newspaper document had to be legible, had to be the earliest edition of a document, had to be the most complete, and, in the case of speeches, had to be the best stenographic (first person, verbatim) copy. Very often the earliest edition of a newspaper document was the most legible, was unedited, and was a stenographic copy, but this was not always the case. When it was not, the editors selected for filming the copy that best met the definition of superior. On occasion two or three newspapers sent reporters to cover a black abolitionist speech, and the first account of a speech to appear in print was not always the most complete. When this occurred, the project used the most extensive stenographic copy of a speech rather than the earliest. There were cases in which two or three reports of a speech were all excellent yet were sufficiently different to warrant microfilming all the copies. And, in some instances, the project had to be satisfied with third person, paraphrased accounts because only those versions were available.
Documents acquired from newspapers make up approximately 60% of this collection. The editorial principles fashioned specifically for documents found in newspapers are sketched below.
Letters written by blacks to black newspaper editors are labeled in the traditional scholarly format.
This information is found at the top left of the document.
A majority of the letters written to black newspaper editors were addressed to Dear Editor or some derivative thereof. The project has provided the editor's name in brackets as it appears on the masthead of the newspaper. In instances when more than one name appears on the masthead, all the names are given on the top left of the document. Brackets are used to standardize and complete both author and recipient names when appropriate. In the case of letters addressed to black editors by large black gatherings (often as a preface to the submission of minutes or proceedings from a gathering), the names of the gathering's president or chairman or its corresponding secretary appear on the author line followed by a semicolon and the term et al.
Unsigned letters to black editors were designated as anonymous.
Editorials signed by a black editor have the editor's name on the author line. Editorials signed with initials of a black editor have the complete name, with appropriate bracketing, when the editor could be identified. When editorials were signed with one or more initials of a person who was black but whose identity is unknown, the initial or initials are provided on the author line. Unsigned editorials in black newspapers have the title Editor in brackets on the author line. All editorials in black newspapers whether signed, initialed, or unsigned are identified as editorials on the second line, top left.
The project has been liberal in designating documents as editorials. Nineteenth century newspapers were more flexible than their contemporary counterparts about restricting their editorial judgments to the editorial page. Newspaper documents such as letters from the editor or news stories by the editor which contain obvious editorial statements often have been included in the microfilm edition and labeled as editorials.
Poems, notices, advertisements, and other contributions to black newspapers which were signed or initialed were treated as all other documents. Unsigned poems, notices, advertisements, or other contributions were not included in the microfilm edition.
Letters written by black abolitionists that appear in white newspapers are treated in the traditional scholarly fashion:
A letter written by a black abolitionist to a white newspaper editor in which the editor is identified will have the editor's full name in the recipient space, brackets are used when appropriate to complete a name. No attempt was made to provide the names of recipient white editors if no proper name is given by the writer (e.g., Dear Editor.) Instead, the recipient space will read Editor and the name of the newspaper (i.e., Editor, New York Tribune.)
Many letters by black abolitionists are not addressed to either the editor by name or to the title, Editor. They appear as Dear Sir, Dear Friend, etc. In such cases, the title. Editor, and the name of the newspaper appear in brackets. When it could be determined by the project that a letter written by a black abolitionist to a white editor was a reprint from another newspaper and when the original submission was unavailable or illegible, the name of the newspaper where the letter was originally published was used. Unsigned letters to white editors by persons whom the project judged to be black appear as anonymous.
The guidelines governing name orders and bracketing procedures for newspapers also apply to manuscript documents.
Dates are found on the top line in the upper left-hand corner of the document. Any information added to the date (such as full spelling of a month which is abbreviated on the document or addition of a day or year unknown by the repository and/or obscured on the document) is bracketed. When a question mark is used outside bracketed dates, the mark has been placed by the repository holding the document. When a date could not be determined, the letters n.d. (no date) were lowercased and bracketed.
Place names appear on the third line of the upper left corner. Place order appears as City, State or City, Country. Brackets and question marks were used in the same way they are on the date line. An unknown place was indicated by the letters n.p. (no place) in brackets.
The fourth line at upper left is reserved for manuscript document descriptions. The project limited descriptive efforts to legal designations (such as will, deed, or receipt) and to the classification of documents which resulted from black meetings-minutes, proceedings, etc. Titles of printed materials were also listed on the description line. When a manuscript document was signed by a number of individuals, black signees, who were known to the project at the time the document was acquired, were listed. The remaining names are acknowledged by et al. and are found in the name index.
Significant enclosures often accompanied the documents collected by the project. They have been included in the microfilm edition and are labeled as enclosures on the top left of the document.
Manuscript symbols appear at the bottom of the first page of each manuscript document.
Autographed Document Signed
Autographed Letter Signed
Autographed Note Signed
|Letter Book Copy
Archives and repositories which contributed documents for the microfilm edition of the Black Abolitionist Papers Project:
University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
National Library of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada cited as
Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada.
Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada cited as Ontario
Archives, Toronto, Canada.
Ontario Provincial Archives, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Toronto Board of Education, Education Center Library, Toronto,
City of Toronto Archives, Toronto, Ontario, Canada cited as
Toronto City Hall Archives.
Metropolitan Toronto Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada cited as
Toronto Public Library.
United Church of Canada Archives, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Leddy Library, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
Archives Nationales du Quebec, Quebec, Quebec, Canada.
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France.
Birmingham Public Library, Birmingham, England.
Woodbrooke College Library, Woodbrooke College, Birmingham,
Allen and Hanbury's Ltd., London, England.
British Library, London, England.
Dr. Williams's Library, London, England.
Library of the Society of Friends, Friends House, London,
Royal Geographic Society Archives, London, England.
John Rylands University Library, Manchester, England.
Rhodes House Library, Oxford University, Oxford, England.
National Library of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, Historical Library,
Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica.
National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Mitchell Library, Glasgow, Scotland.
The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley
California State Library, Sacramento, California.
California Historical Society Library. San Francisco, California.
Henry E. Huntingdon Library, San Marino, California.
Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, Connecticut.
Hartford Connecticut Town Records, Hartford, Connecticut.
Beinecke Rare Bookand Manuscript Library, Yale University, New
Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University, New Haven,
Connecticut. Cited as Yale University.
Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, District of
Library of Congress, District of Columbia.
National Archives, District of Columbia.
Trevor Arnett Library, Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois.
Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois.
Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago,
University of Illinois Library, University of Illinois,
Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.
Amistad Research Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Maine Historical Society, Portland, Maine.
Morris A. Soper Library, Morgan State College, Baltimore,
Boston Athenaeum, Boston, Massachusetts.
Boston Public Library and Eastern Massachusetts Regional Public
Library System, Boston, Massachusetts cited as Boston Public
Library, Boston, Massachusetts.
Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
Congregational Library, Boston, Massachusetts.
Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts.
The Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts. Cited as Harvard University.
Widener Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Concord Free Public Library, Concord, Massachusetts.
New Bedford Free Public Library, New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Forbes Library, Northampton, Massachusetts. Cited as Northampton,
Massachusetts Public Library.
Women's History Archives, Smith College, Northampton,
Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts.
Williston Memorial Library, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley,
Massachusetts. Cited as Mount Holyoke College Library.
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts.
Clark University Library, Clark University, Worcester,
Worcester Historical Society, Worcester, Massachusetts.
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library, Detroit,
Clark Historical Library, Central Michigan University, Mt.
University of Minnesota Library, University of Minnesota,
Dartmouth College Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New
Drew University Library, Drew University, Madison, New Jersey.
New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, New Jersey.
Archibald Stevens Alexander Library, Rutgers, The State
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Cited as Rutgers
Princeton University Library, Princeton University, Princeton,
McKinney Library, Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany,
Albany Public Library, Albany, New York.
New York State Library, Albany, New York. Cited as New York State
Library, Education Department.
Cortland County Historical Society, Cortland, New York.
Olin Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
DeWitt Historical Society of Tompkins County, Ithaca, New York.
Queen's Borough Public Library, Jamaica, New York.
Butler Library, Columbia University, New York, New York. Cited as
Columbia University, New York, New York.
New-York Historical Society, New York, New York.
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York
Public Library, New York, New York.
Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, The New York Public Library,
New York, New York.
American Baptist Historical Society, Rochester, New York.
Rush-Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
Onondaga County Public Library, Syracuse, New York.
George Arents Research Library, Syracuse University, Syracuse,
County Clerk's Office, Madison County (Wampsville), New York.
Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina
Library, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Cited as University of
Duke University Library, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Cincinnati Historical Society, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cited as
Historical and Philosophical Society.
Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.
Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.
Seeley G. Mudd Center, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
Antioch College Library, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio.
Pennsylvania Bureau of Archives and History, Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Cited as Pennsylvania Archives.
Haverford College Library, Haverford College, Haverford,
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Library Company of Philadelphia, Historical Society of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
United Presbyterian Church in the United States, Presbyterian
Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College, Swarthmore,
Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania.
Francis Harvey Green Library, West Chester State College, West
Newport Town Hall, Newport, Rhode Island.
Redwood Library and Athenaeum, Newport, Rhode Island.
John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.
Fisk University Library, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee.
Meharry Medical College Library, Nashville, Tennessee.
Archives for the American Southwest, Texas Tech University,
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
Racine, Wisconsin, Register of Deeds, Racine, Wisconsin.
Newspapers and periodicals which provided documents for the microfilm edition of the Black Abolitionist Papers Project:
Intelligencer and Missionary Magazine (Shelbyville,
Abolitionist (London, England).
Abolitionist (Middletown, Connecticut).
Advocate of Freedom (Augusta, Maine, Brunswick, Maine, Hallowell,
African Repository (Washington D. C).
African Repository and Colonial Journal (Washington, D. C).
African Times (London, England).
Albany Patriot (Albany, New York).
Albany Weekly Patriot (Albany, New York).
Aliene American (Cleveland, Ohio).
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Reporter (New York, New York).
American Anti-Slavery Reporter (New York, New York).
American Citizen (Rochester, New York).
American Freeman (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Waukesha, Wisconsin).
American Jubilee (New York, New York).
Anglo-African Magazine (New York, New York).
Anti-Slavery Advocate (London, England).
Anti-Slavery Bugle (Salem, Ohio, New Lisbon, Ohio).
Anti-Slavery Examiner (New York, New York).
Anti-Slavery League (London, England).
Anti-Slavery Lecturer (Utica, New York).
Anti-Slavery Magazine (Derby, Connecticut).
Anti-Slavery Record (New York, New York).
Anti-Slavery Reporter (London, England).
Anti-Slavery Watchman (London, England).
Banner of Liberty (Middletown, New York).
Banner of Ulster (Belfast, Northern Ireland).
Belfast Daily Mercury (Belfast, Northern Ireland).
Belfast Newsletter (Belfast, Northern Ireland).
Black Republican (New Orleans, Louisiana).
Boston Chronotype (Boston, Massachusetts).
Boston Morning Chronicle (Boston, Massachusetts).
Boston Semi-Weekly Republican (Boston, Massachusetts).
Bristol Gazette (Bristol, England).
Bristol Mercury (Bristol, England).
British Banner (London, England).
British Emancipator (London, England).
British Friend (Glasgow, Scotland).
Caledonia Mercury (Edinburgh, Scotland).
Canadian Freeman (Toronto, Ontario, Canada).
Charter Oak (Hartford, Connecticut).
Chatham Chronicle (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Chatham Gleaner (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Chatham Journal (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Chatham Planet (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Chatham Tri-Weekly Planet (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Christian Freeman (Hartford, Connecticut).
Christian News (Glasgow, Scotland).
Christian Recorder (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
Cincinnati Gazette (Cincinnati, Ohio).
Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist (Cincinnati, Ohio).
Clarion (Sandusky, Ohio).
Colonization Herald and General Register (Philadelphia,
Colored American (Augusta, Georgia).
Colored American (New York, New York, Philadelphia,
Colored Citizen (Cincinnati, Ohio).
Colored Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee).
Concord Freeman (Concord, New Hampshire).
Cortland County Whig (Cortland, New York).
Cortland Democrat (Cortland, New York).
Derbyshire Courier (Chesterfield, England).
Derbyshire Times (Chesterfield, England).
Disciple (Boston, Massachusetts).
Douglass' Monthly (Rochester, New York).
Dumfries and Galloway Courier (Dumfries, Scotland).
Edinburgh Observer (Edinburgh, Scotland).
Elevator (San Francisco, California).
Emancipator and Republican (Boston, Massachusetts).
Emancipator (Boston, Massachusetts, New York, New York).
Facts of the People (Washington, D. C).
Falkirk Herald (Falkirk, Scotland).
Frederick Douglass' Paper (Rochester, New York).
Free American (Boston, Massachusetts).
Free Labor Advocate (Newport, Indiana, New Garden, Indiana).
Free Soil Republican (Hallowell, Maine).
Free West (Chicago, Illinois).
Freedman (Boston, Massachusetts).
Freedman's Advocate (New York, New York, Washington, D. C).
Freeman's Journal (Dublin, Ireland).
Friend of Africa (London, England).
Friend of Man (Utica, New York).
Gateshead Observer (Gateshead, England).
Genius of Liberty (Lowell, Illinois).
Genius of Liberty (Uniontown, Pennsylvania).
Genius of Universal Emancipation (Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, Greenville,
Tennessee; Baltimore, Maryland; Washington, D. C.; Hennepin,
Gerritt Smith Banner (New York, New York).
Glasgow Saturday Post (Glasgow, Scotland).
Gloucester Journal (Gloucester, England).
Halifax Courier (Halifax, Yorkshire, England).
Hannibal Courier (Hannibal, Missouri).
Herald of Freedom (Concord, New Hampshire).
Herald of Freedom (Wilmington, Ohio).
Impartial Citizen (Boston, Massachusetts, Syracuse, New York).
Inquirer (London, England).
Jefferson City Weekly Democrat (Jefferson City, Missouri).
Kelso Chronicle (Kelso, Scotland).
Kent Advertiser (Kent, Chatham, Ontario).
Leeds Intelligencer (Leeds, England).
Leeds Mercury (Leeds, England).
Leeds Times (Leeds, England).
Legion of Liberty and Force of Truth (New York, New York).
Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts).
Liberia Herald (Monrovia, Liberia).
Liberty Bell (New York, New York).
Liberty Party Paper (Syracuse, New York).
Liberty Press (Utica, New York).
Liberty Standard (Hallowell, Maine).
Liberty Tree (Chicago, Illinois).
Londonderry Guardian (Londonderry, Northern Ireland).
Lunar Visitor (San Francisco, California).
Lynn Freeman (Lynn, Massachusetts).
Manchester Examiner and Times (Manchester, England).
Manchester Weekly Times (Manchester, England).
Maryland Colonization Journal (Baltimore, Maryland).
Michigan Liberty Press (Battle Creek, Michigan).
Mirror of the Times (San Francisco, California).
Mirror of Liberty (New York, New York).
Monthly Illustration of American Slavery (Newcastle-on-Tyne,
Monthly Offering (Boston, Massachusetts).
Montreal Witness (Montreal, Quebec, Canada).
Morning Star (London, England).
Nashville Times and True Union (Nashville, Tennessee).
National Anti-Slavery Standard (New York, New York).
National Enquirer and Constitutional Advocate of Universal
Liberty (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
National Era (Washington, D. C).
National Era Supplement (Washington, D. C.).
National Palladium and Freeman's Journal (Philadelphia,
National Principia (New York, New York).
National Reformer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
National Watchman (Troy, New York).
New Orleans Tribune (New Orleans, Louisiana).
New York Colonization Journal (New York, New York).
New York Evangelist (New York, New York).
New York Journal of Medicine (New York, New York).
New York Observer (New York, New York).
New York Spectator (New York, New York).
New York Tribune (New York, New York).
New York Zion's Watchman (New York, New York).
Non Conformist (London, England).
Non-Resistant (Boston, Massachusetts).
Non-Slaveholder (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
North Star (Rochester, New York).
Northern Christian Advocate (Auburn, New York).
Northern Independent (Auburn, New York).
Northern Star and Freeman's Advocate (Albany, New York).
Northern Warder (Dundee, Scotland).
Northern Whig (Belfast, Northern Ireland).
Oberlin Evangelist (Oberlin, Ohio).
Pacific Appeal (San Francisco, California).
Palladium of Liberty (Columbus, Ohio).
Patriot (London, England).
Pennsylvania Freeman (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
People's Advocate (Concord, New Hampshire).
Philanthropist (London, England).
Philanthropist (Mt. Pleasant, Ohio).
Philanthropist (New Richmond, Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio).
Pine and Palm (Boston, Massachusetts; New York, New York).
Pioneer and Herald of Freedom (Lynn, Massachusetts).
Plymouth and Devonport Weekly Journal (Plymouth, England).
Plymouth Times (Plymouth, England).
Preston Guardian (Preston, England).
Providence Daily Tribune (Providence, Rhode Island).
Providence Journal (Providence, Rhode Island).
Provincial Freeman (Windsor, Canada West; Toronto, Ontario,
Canada; Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Radical Abolitionist (New York, New York).
Ram's Horn (New York, New York).
Reformer (Worcester, Massachusetts).
Regenerator (New York, New York, Fruithills, Ohio).
Republican (Oxford, New York).
Rhode Island Freeman (Providence Rhode Island).
Rights of All (New York, New York).
Rochester Daily Advertiser (Rochester, New York).
Rochester Daily Democrat (Rochester, New York).
Rochester Republican (Rochester, New York).
Scotsman (Edinburgh, Scotland).
Signal of Liberty (Ann Arbor, Michigan).
Soulby's Ulverston Advertiser (Ulverston, England).
Southern Literary Messenger (Richmond, Virginia).
Syracuse Daily Standard (Syracuse, New York).
Syracuse Journal (Syracuse, New York).
Toronto Globe (Toronto, Ontario, Canada).
Tourist (London, England).
True Royalist and Weekly Intelligencer (Windsor, Ontario,
Union Missionary (New York, New York).
Vermont Telegraph (Brandon, Vermont).
Village Record (West Chester, Pennsylvania).
Vindicato (Syracuse, New York).
Voice of the Fugitive (Sandwich, Canada West, Windsor,
Warrington Standard (Warrington, England).
Warrington Times (Warrington, England).
Watchman and Wesleyan Advertiser (London, England).
Weekly Advocate (New York, New York).
Weekly Advocate Extra (New York, New York).
Weekly Anglo-African (New York, New York).
West Briton (Truro, England).
Western Citizen (Chicago, Illinois).
Western Herald (Sandwich, Ontario, Canada).
Western Planet (Chatham, Ontario, Canada).
Western Times (Exeter, England).
Wisconsin Free Democrat (Milwaukee, Wisconsin).
Documents w/no date (alpha